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Bicultural principles of teaching and learning online | Ngā mātāpono kākano rua o te mahi ako tuihono

Edited by Arapera Card, Rosina Merry, and Janis Carroll-Lind

This resource sets out 11 principles that are inherent in best practice for teaching and learning in an online bicultural delivery environment.

The intention of these principles is to provide all kaiako with a shared understanding of online teaching expectations that embrace tikanga principles and practices throughout all areas of their online teaching. The bicultural principles were originally developed to enhance the practice a tertiary organisation, Te Rito Maioha Early Childhood New Zealand, but are readily transferrable to all educational settings. The principles are explained by Te Rito Maioha kaiako. The resource includes advice on how to:

  • - communicate so the wairua and mana of learners/tauira is strengthened
  • -  create warm, connected learning environments
  • - establish kaiako as trusted guides
  • - establish clear expectations and protocols in an online space
  • - build trust online so learners/tauira are more likely to seek and receive support
  • - ensure contributions are protected and their privacy is maintained
  • - uphold Te Tiriti o Waitangi through distinctive bicultural principles
  • - view online netiquette through a bicultural lens.

Mā te ahurei o te tauira e ārahi i ā tātou mahi

Let the uniqueness of the tauira guide our work


  • Sara Archard
  • Simon Archard
  • Arapera Card
  • Dawn Macowan
  • Rosina Merry
  • Raewyn Penman
  • Bridgette Redder
  • Mero Rokx
  • Susana Smith
  • Jade Whaanga
  • Rachel Winslow