The term assessment capable was introduced in New Zealand to distinguish between the more formulaic use of assessment-for-learning practices, and those that empower students to become self-regulated learners. This article explores the concept of assessment capability. It considers what it means to be an assessment-capable teacher in New Zealand, the lessons that have been learned in this area, and why the realisation of the assessment-capable student may be challenging. It examines the critical roles that teachers play in facilitating three key conditions needed for students to become metacognitive, self-regulated learners. Finally, it suggests ways that teachers may be supported to become assessment-capable professionals.