This is the second report in the Competent Children longitudinal study.
This full report on the children at age 6 found that maths and reading showed the main gains in competencies since age 5. Only 10% could read at age 5. By age 6, only 10% could not read. The first year at school narrowed the age 5 gaps in mathematics and literacy scores between children from mainly low-income early childhood centres and children from mainly middle-income centres. It also narrowed the age 5 gaps between Māori and Pākehā/European children.
The report shows the complex effects of a wide range of home and school factors on children's competencies. Early childhood education continued to make a difference. In fact its impact grew stronger at age 6. But family income had the most impact.
Six years old and competent is a handy summary to this report.