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Perceptions of the effectiveness of feedback: School leaders’ perspectives

Anastasiya A. Lipnevich, Leigh N. McCallen and Jeffrey K. Smith

Feedback on students’ written assignments has been deemed critical for improvement. Although teachers’ and students’ views on feedback have been examined, school leaders’ perceptions of what constitutes effective feedback remain unclear. This study investigates school leaders’ perceived quality of feedback that a teacher may provide, with teacher responses formulated based on Hattie and Timperley’s (2007) typology of feedback. We randomly assigned school leaders (n=103) to five experimental conditions based on Hattie and Timperley’s types of feedback (task-level, process-level, self-regulation-level, person-level/praise, and person-level/criticism), and asked them to rate the quality of the feedback. The results revealed that school leaders rated task-level feedback as most effective, followed by person-level/criticism feedback. Person-level/praise was deemed least effective in improving the quality of students’ writing. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

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